A concise history of mathematics - download pdf or read online

By Dirk J. Struik

This compact, well-written historical past — first released in 1948, and now in its fourth revised variation — describes the most developments within the improvement of all fields of arithmetic from the 1st on hand documents to the center of the 20 th century. scholars, researchers, historians, experts — briefly, every body with an curiosity in arithmetic — will locate it engrossing and stimulating.
Beginning with the traditional close to East, the writer lines the guidelines and strategies built in Egypt, Babylonia, China, and Arabia, taking a look into such manuscripts because the Egyptian Papyrus Rhind, the 10 Classics of China, and the Siddhantas of India. He considers Greek and Roman advancements from their beginnings in Ionian rationalism to the autumn of Constantinople; covers medieval eu rules and Renaissance traits; analyzes seventeenth- and 18th-century contributions; and gives an illuminating exposition of nineteenth century options. each vital determine in mathematical historical past is handled — Euclid, Archimedes, Diophantus, Omar Khayyam, Boethius, Fermat, Pascal, Newton, Leibniz, Fourier, Gauss, Riemann, Cantor, and plenty of others.
For this most recent variation, Dr. Struik has either revised and up to date the present textual content, and in addition additional a brand new bankruptcy at the arithmetic of the 1st half the 20 th century. Concise assurance is given to set thought, the impact of relativity and quantum thought, tensor calculus, the Lebesgue essential, the calculus of diversifications, and different vital rules and ideas. The ebook concludes with the beginnings of the pc period and the seminal paintings of von Neumann, Turing, Wiener, and others.
"The author's skill as a firstclass historian in addition to an capable mathematician has enabled him to supply a piece that is definitely one of many best." — Nature Magazine.

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B) Owing to friction between the liquid and the sides of the channel, the velocity at the sides of the channel will be less than that at the middle. 43. This, however, produces sidecontraction of the stream. 2H. 42 contraction. 43 Rectangular notch, showing side-contraction. 44 While the cross-section of the stream from a triangular weir remains geometrically similar for all values of H, the value of C is influenced by H. 64, and takes into account the contraction of the stream. If the velocity of approach is not negligible the value of H must be suitably corrected as in the case of the rectangular weir.

On reaching the downstream turbine, the swirling fluid attempts to impart motion onto it; however, this turbine is con­ strained from rotating by a calibrated spring. The meter is designed such that on leaving the downstream turbine all angular velocity will have been removed from the fluid and the torque produced on it is proportional to mass flow. This type of device can be used for both gases and liquids with accuracies of ± 1 per cent. (b) Gyroscopic/Coriolis mass flowmeter. Mass flowmeters in this category use the measurement of torque developed when subjecting the fluid stream to a Coriolis acceleration,* as a measure of mass flow rate.

Flow Measurement and Meters, E. N. Spon Miller, R. , Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill, (1982) SherclifT, J. , The Theory of Electromagnetic Flow Measurement, Cambridge University Press, (1962) Watrasiewisy, B. M. and Rudd, M. 1 Fittings producing symmetrical disturbances Case A. 7 fitting 16 16 18 20 23 26 29 33 13 Case B. Gate valve fully open (for J closed see Case H) 12 12 12 13 16 20 27 38 10 Case C. Globe valve fully open (for J closed see Case J) 18 18 20 23 27 32 40 49 16 Reducer (any reduction including from a large space) 25 25 25 25 25 26 29 33 13 10 10 13 16 22 29 41 56 15 14 15 18 22 28 36 46 57 18 Fittings producing asymmetrical disturbances and swirling motion Case GJ.

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A concise history of mathematics by Dirk J. Struik


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