By Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira
The decade of the twentieth century was once marked by means of a shift in how welfare-states care for these on the backside of the source of revenue ladder. This shift concerned the introduction/strengthening of work-obligations as a for receiving minimal source of revenue merits - which, in a few nations, was once complemented by way of efforts to assist recipients go back to the labour marketplace, specifically throughout the funding in energetic labour industry regulations (ALMP).
Based on case-studies of advancements within the US and 8 ecu countries (UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, France, Portugal and the Czech Republic), this publication argues that this primary set of reforms was once via a moment wave of reforms that, while deepening the trail in the direction of the focal point on paintings, brings very important techniques- be it the instruments used to assist recipients again to the labour markets (ex., monetary incentives) and in how activation rules are added (ex., integration of profit and employment services).
Looking on the array of advancements brought in this interval, we parent key traits.
The first matters the strengthening of the function of the industry within the governance of activation, that is noticeable within the strengthening of the point of interest on paintings, or the marketisation of employment prone. the second one, matters a circulate in the direction of the individualisation of carrier supply, obvious within the growth of using own motion plans or in efforts to streamline provider supply.
Finally, we express that the onset of the sovereign debt concern in Europe, has prompted a brand new wave of reforms. while tentative simply, our research issues to a being concerned pattern of the curtailment or merits (Portugal) and activation companies (Netherlands, Czech Republic) to minimal source of revenue recipients and, in parallel, an additional deepening of the point of interest on work-conditionality (UK and Norway).
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Extra info for Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence
As part of the national drive to combat poverty, the past decade has seen new initiatives to support programs that have aimed beyond workfare. More recently, Norway has also introduced a national alternative to municipally funded and administered economic social assistance accompanied by an activation scheme for eligible social assistance clients. This scheme has been described in terms depicting it to be closer to that of a human capital approach. The second catalyzing process was equally supported across the political board, though less driven by grandiose promises and moral panic.
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Hvinden, B. (1999). Activation: A Nordic perspective. In M. ), Linking welfare and work (pp. 27–42). Dublin, Ireland: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Hvinden, B. (2000). Activation in the Western Europe of the 1990s: Did it make a difference? In P. Krause, G. Bäcker, & W. ), Combating poverty in Europe (pp. 267–285). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. Immervoll, H. (2009). Minimum-income benefits in OECD countries: Policy design, effectiveness and challenges (IZA Discussion Paper No.
Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence by Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira