By Frederick W. Alt
Advances in Immunology, a customary and hugely revered book, offers present advancements in addition to finished experiences in immunology. Articles deal with the big variety of themes that contain immunology, together with molecular and mobile activation mechanisms, phylogeny and molecular evolution, and medical modalities. Edited and authored by means of the most important scientists within the box, each one quantity offers up to date details and instructions for destiny * Contributions from top professionals and specialists * Informs and updates on all of the newest advancements within the box
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Extra resources for Advances in Immunology, Vol. 105
3. a-Mannosidase 5. 1016/S0065 2776(10)05002 9 # 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 25 26 Alexandre Darmoise et al. 1. 2. Saposins facilitate antigen cross-presentation 6. SAP-Like Proteins in Antimicrobial Defense 7. Conclusions References Abstract 46 47 48 50 50 Saposins or sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) are small, nonenzymatic glycoproteins that are ubiquitously present in lysosomes. SAPs comprise the five molecules saposins A–D and the GM2 activator protein. Saposins are essential for sphingolipid degradation and membrane digestion.
Deficiency in GM2AP leads to the AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis, an atypical form of Tay–Sachs disease with characteristic tissue accumulation of GM2 and related GSLs in neuronal lysosomes (Conzelmann and Sandhoff, 1978). , 1982). , 2000). , 2003). The most flexible of the loops contains the substrate-binding site and controls the entrance to the cavity to facilitate an open or a closed conformation. Accordingly, open, empty GM2AP binds to target membranes by using its hydrophobic loops and penetrates into the hydrophobic region of the bilayer.
2. SAPOSINS IN LYSOSOMAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPID DEGRADATION AND MEMBRANE DIGESTION Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are a class of lipids present in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells (Kolter and Sandhoff, 2005). Structurally, GSLs share a common hydrophobic ceramide moiety that acts as a membrane anchor, which is coupled to a hydrophilic oligosaccharide chain. GSLs play important roles in the structural organization of membranes and cellular interactions with microbes or toxins (Hakomori, 1981; Karlsson, 1989).
Advances in Immunology, Vol. 105 by Frederick W. Alt