By Pavel Polian
In the course of his reign over the previous Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin oversaw the compelled resettlement of six million humans -- a maniacal ardour that he used for social engineering. The Soviets weren't the 1st to thrust resettlement on its inhabitants -- a massive attribute of totalitarian structures -- yet when it comes to sheer numbers, applied sciences used to deport humans and the lawlessness which observed it, Stalin's procedure used to be the main striking. Six million humans of alternative social, ethnic, and professions have been resettled sooner than Stalin's demise. Even this day, the aftermath of such deportations principally predetermines occasions which occur within the northern Caucasus, Crimea, the Baltic republics, Moldavia, and western Ukraine. Polian's quantity is the 1st try to comprehensively study the background of compelled and semivoluntary inhabitants hobbies inside of or equipped by means of the Soviet Union. Contents diversity from the early Nineteen Twenties to the rehabilitation of repressed nationalities within the Nineties facing inner (kulaks, ethnic and political deportations) and foreign pressured migrations (German internees and occupied territories). An abundance of proof, figures, tables, maps, and an exhaustively-detailed annex will function vital resources for additional researches.
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Extra resources for Against their will. The history and geography of forced migration in the USSR.
Earlier we proposed that a classification of forced migrations 90 be used for their cataloguing and better understanding. The classification has been updated and improved now (see table 2). The proposed classification arises from a fundamental division between “repressive” and “non-repressive” migrations. Apart from their punitive function, the “repressive migrations” involve as their defining feature a direct action engendered by a supreme political decision (more rarely by an international agreement, as in the case of the Yalta agreement with regard to forced repatriation), which is not subject to appeal or even discussion.
Based on the suggested classification, we can now elaborate on and specify the object of our research. The research will cover the first four classes of repressive migrations, or deportations, distinguished by social, ethnic, confessional, and political indicators. Forced displacement of POWs and prisoners, including both political and criminal offenders,95 will remain outside our research area. At the same time, the case of the Ostarbeiter falls within the studied area, but should be qualified as a mixed one.
If one looks upon the war as a global fight between two coalitions, one has to recognize the fact that both sides contributed to the ensuing historical and human catastrophe. However, first of all blame can be attached to the individual totalitarian leaders of the coalitions, namely the Stalin Communist regime and Nazism under Hitler. Merely in the USSR some 15 million people fell into the category of “forced migrants,” including those deported by Germany to its territory. , the USA). Undoubtedly it was primarily Germany that was able to rival the USSR when it came to forced migrations.
Against their will. The history and geography of forced migration in the USSR. by Pavel Polian