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By Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi

Persia is domestic to at least one of the few civilizations on the earth that has had a continual culture of philosophical suggestion for over and a part millennia. As Islamic theology built within the heart a while, a lot of its colleges interacted with latest Persian philosophical currents and advanced right into a distinct philosophical 'Kalam', or dogmatic theology. one of the definitive masters of either Shi'i and Sunni theologians have been quite a few Persians, leader between them Al-Ghazzali and Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi, who're prominently represented the following. very important decisions from either Shi'i and Sunni theological faculties (including Mu'tazila and Ash'ariyya) are integrated within the quantity, lots of that have by no means ahead of been to be had in translation within the West before.

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Al-Ashʿarī, Maqālāt, Part I. pp. 245–246. Or memorized. The Arabic term has this double connotation. Abu’l-Hudhayl. 2 Ibrāhīm al-Naẓẓām Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm ibn Sayyār known as al-Naẓẓām, who probably came from a Persian background, was born and brought up in Baṣra where he studied with his uncle Abu’l-Hudhayl al-ʿAllāf. After 204/819 al-Naẓẓām gained access to the Abbasid court in Baghdad and was respected by al-Maʾmūn. It was in that city that he died between 220/835 and 230/845, still at the height of his intellectual powers.

Al-Naẓẓām, it is said, used to say that length is the same as the long and breadth is the same as the broad; and that colours, tastes, smells, sounds, pains, heat, coldness, dampness . . . . al-Ashʿarī, Maqālāt al-Islāmiyyīn (Cairo, 1954), Part 2, p. 6. al-Ashʿarī. al-Ashʿarī, Maqālāt, Part 2, pp. 20ff. Ibid. p. 36. 33 34 Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and dryness are all subtle bodies. He also held that the locus of colour is the same as the locus of taste and smell, and that the subtle bodies could occupy the same locus.

Faced with the presence of other religions and philosophies, Abu’l-Hudhayl set out to defend the tenets of Islam against Zoroastrian and Manichean dualism as well as the naturalism associated with later Greek thought. Later in life he began to study philosophy, to which he was attracted while attacking the philosophers. In his own theological position he emphasized above all Divine Oneness and transcendence (tanzīh) and opposed all references to immanence and similitude (tashbīh). He also sought to harmonize the idea of creation ex nihilo as stated in revealed scriptures and Aristotelian cosmology in which the cosmos does not have a created origin.

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An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi

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