By Mitchel P. Roth
From “an eye for an eye” to debates over capital punishment, humanity has an extended and debatable dating with meting out justice for legal acts. this present day, crime and punishment stay major components of our tradition, yet societies fluctuate significantly on what's thought of felony and the way it may be punished. during this worldwide survey of crime and punishment all through background, Mitchel P. Roth examines how and why we penalize sure actions, and he scrutinizes the effectiveness of such efforts in either punishing wrongdoers and bringing a feeling of justice to victims.
Drawing on anthropology, archaeology, folklore, and literature, Roth chronicles the worldwide background of crime and punishment—from early civilizations to the outlawing of intercourse crimes and serial murder to the improvement of prepared crime and the possibility this day of world piracy. He explores the beginning of the penal complex and the perform of incarceration in addition to the fashionable philosophy of rehabilitation, arguing that those are maybe an important advances within the attempt to protect electorate from damage. having a look heavily on the retributions societies have condoned, Roth additionally examine execution and its many varieties, exhibiting how stoning, hemlock, the firing squad, and deadly injection are thought of both barbaric or justified throughout diverse cultures. finally, he illustrates that regardless of advances in each point of human adventure, there's striking continuity in what's thought of a criminal offense and the sanctions administered.
ideal for college kids, lecturers, and basic readers alike, this interdisciplinary booklet presents a desirable examine criminal activity and its results.
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Extra resources for An Eye for an Eye: A Global History of Crime and Punishment
5 The Prevalence of Delinquency One of the most basic questions surrounding the topic of juvenile delinquency concerns the proportion of youths at risk that have had official contact with the police or other official criminal justice agencies. At a minimum, delinquency research must measure the prevalence of the phenomenon by classifying the at-risk population at least in terms of the delinquent versus nondelinquent dichotomy. The accumulation of prevalence data thus provides information on the relative size of the delinquent population across demographic groups and regions and over time.
5% vs. 3%) than was the case for Cohort I. 1 also replicate the Cohort I finding concerning the impact of race on delinquency. 8% vs. 7%) and in terms of the various offender categories. 1% of the whites, may be so classified. The discrepancy is maintained when the prevalence of delinquents is divided into non chronic (two to four offenses) and chronic (five or more offenses). 3% vs. 1 % vs. 4%). Despite these race differences, it should be noted that the impact of race on delinquency in Cohort II is clearly less striking than was the case in Cohort I.
8% of a group of sixth-grade boys (in an anonymous, medium-sized midwestern community) had come into contact with the police as juveniles. 6% of the boys in a statewide Minnesota sample had police contacts before age 18. More recently, Shannon (1980) has reported prevalence data for his Racine, Wisconsin, cohorts. 0% of the 1955 cohort had a police contact for a felony or misdemeanor before age 18. The consistency of the police contact-based prevalence measures suggests that the chances of young, urban males becoming delinquent are fairly constant at about one out of three.
An Eye for an Eye: A Global History of Crime and Punishment by Mitchel P. Roth