By Carlos F. Amábile-Cuevas
The presence of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and antibiotic resistant micro organism within the setting (i.e., outdoors of medical settings, similar to antibiotic-treated sufferers or antibiotic-impregnated destinations, resembling hospitals) is a reason for transforming into world wide hindrance, because it finds the huge impression of antibiotic abuse and different human-related pressures upon microbes. additionally, the aptitude medical and environmental impression of the presence of antibiotic resistance open air the most obvious scientific settings is usually unknown, yet can be without notice huge, as resistance in medical stipulations could be visible as a really small ''tip of the iceberg''. the sector of detecting and measuring resistance within the atmosphere has speedily developed from normally anecdotal stories on the finish of the Nineteen Nineties, to a scientific seek of organisms and genes in a large choice of settings, from historical permafrost to migratory birds. This booklet will assessment the to be had proof and hypotheses on the place this resistance is coming from and for a way lengthy it's been there; what are the selective and upkeep pressures concerned, and the way is resistance spreading; what are the identified and attainable qualities which are being chosen and unfold besides antibiotic resistance ones; what are the laboratory and in-silico recommendations to appear into this factor, and their benefits and disadvantages.
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Additional info for Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in the environment
181, 237–243. Anzueto, A. & Norris, S. (2004) Clarithromycin in 2003: sustained efficacy and safety in an era of rising antibiotic resistance. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 24, 1–17. Arias, C. , Mcgrath, D. , Mojica, M. , Tran, T. , Barbu, E. , Roh, J. , Quinn, J. , Murray, B. E. & Weinstock, G. M. (2011) Genetic basis for in vivo daptomycin resistance in enterococci. N. Engl. J. , 365, 892–900. Arredondo-García, J. L. & Amábile-Cuevas, C. F. (2008) High resistance prevalence towards ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin, among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in Mexico City.
It is therefore of particular importance to keep in mind that all environmental conditions that activate an SOS response might foster the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. As with antibiotic resistance mechanisms, there are also many, many reviews on HGT mechanisms in bacteria; an old paper (Amábile-Cuevas and Chicurel, 1992) along with an “update’’ (Amábile-Cuevas, 2013) can provide a reasonable overall background on the issue. Although the goal of this book is to focus on antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in the environment, it is impossible to do so without understanding the role of HGT.
Such vesicles function as toxin delivery vehicles, along with other roles in pathogenesis; but they also carry DNA that can be uptaken by other bacterial cells. Virulence genes are known to be transferred through these vesicles, but there are some reports of resistance genes also being mobilized in this way: chromosomal beta-lactamase genes have been found in vesicles of P. , 2000); and carbapenemase-encoding plasmids of A. , 2011). This form of “transformation’’ circumvents some of the problems often associated to free-DNA transformation: vesicle-contained DNA is protected from enzyme degradation; and it seems to allow for large, double-stranded DNA to be mobilized, perhaps even without the need for specific sequences or further homologous recombination (see details below).
Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in the environment by Carlos F. Amábile-Cuevas