By William Shafer
Microbes are in our midst quickly after start. fortunately, the variety of innocuous (and frequently necessary) microbes some distance outnumber those who may do us damage. Our skill to ward-off pathogens in our surroundings, together with those who can colonize our external and/or inside surfaces, relies on the integrative motion of the innate and adaptive immunity structures. This quantity of CTMI, entitled Antimicrobial Peptides and Human sickness, is devoted to the position of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) within the innate host safeguard method of homo sapiens.
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Extra resources for Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)
1998). Of the human β-defensins, HBD3 is the most potent antimicrobial. This peptide is more basic, has a broader spectrum and stronger bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as yeast, and is salt-insensitive at concentrations less than 200 mM Na+ ions (Harder et al. 2001). Most biological ﬂuids, including sputum (Halmerbauer et al. 2000), airway surface liquid (Baconnais et al. 1999) and serum/plasma (Hoshino et al. 2003) contain Mg2+ and Ca2+ at free concentrations between 1 and 2 mM, and the presence of these ions is generally more detrimental to antimicrobial activity than Na+ alone.
1989). Two other α-defensins, HD5 and HD6, are found solely in the intestinal tract. HD5 and HD6 were found to be expressed at the transcriptional level solely in the small intestine and in situ hybridisation demonstrated that this expression occurs in the Paneth cells (Jones and Bevins 1992, 1993). Southern blot analysis using a nucleotide probe for the conserved signal sequence of the defensins indicated that a number of genes with high homology to HNPs exist within the human genome. The β-defensins are expressed in a variety of tissue types, including epithelial cells from the trachea and lung, in the salivary and mammary glands, in a variety of organs such as in the plasma and skin (Bensch et al.
2 Role of Host Defence Peptides in Chemokine Production and Chemotaxis It has been observed that there are similarities between chemokines and host defence peptides. Indeed, many chemokines have modest antimicrobial activity (Hieshima et al. 2003; Yang et al. 2003), while a derivative of the highly active antimicrobial peptide, horseshoe crab polyphemusin is a potent antagonist of CXCR4 (Tamamura et al. 1998). Indeed it has been proposed that certain host defence peptides have evolved from duplication of chemokine genes, although this connection is controversial (Durr and Peschel 2002; Yang et al.
Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology) by William Shafer