By Grant R. McMillan (auth.), Grant R. McMillan, David Beevis, Eduardo Salas, Michael H. Strub, Robert Sutton, Leo Van Breda (eds.)
The human components career is at the moment trying to take a extra proactive position within the layout of man-machine structures than has been personality istic of its previous. figuring out that human engineering contributions are wanted good sooner than the experimental overview of prototypes or operational platforms, there's a concerted attempt to increase instruments that are expecting how people will engage with proposed designs. This quantity offers an over view of 1 class of such instruments: mathematical types of human functionality. It represents a suite of invited papers from a 1988 NATO Workshop. The Workshop used to be conceived and arranged via NATO study examine crew nine (RSG.9) on "Modelling of Human Operator Behaviour in Weapon Systems". It represented the fruits of over 5 years of attempt, and was once attended via 139 individuals from Europe, Canada, and the us. RSG.9 was once demonstrated in 1982 by way of Panel eight of the Defence examine staff to complete the next goals: * be certain the application and cutting-edge of human functionality modelling. * motivate overseas learn and the alternate of principles. * Foster the sensible program of modelling learn. * supply a bridge among the types and ways followed through engineers and behavioral scientists. * current the findings in a world symposium.
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Extra info for Applications of Human Performance Models to System Design
Resources The questions posed above are certainly germane, but the issue of selecting a particular technique still remains even when all the answers are known. What would be most welcome would be some guidelines, or perhaps a computer assisted technique, to advance the beleaguered analyst from knowing "where he or she is" to knowing '\;here he or she has to go. " To that end we will briefly mention three practical aids. 39 Table 3 Technique Data Requirements Cost/Effort• Requirements Comparison System level Low cost/ low effort Low High Math Models Detailed task Low cost/ high effort Low-Moderate Low Expert Opinion Task level Low cost/ low effort Low-Moderate High nme Based Task level Low cost/ Moderate effort Low-Moderate Low McCrackenAldrich Task level Low cost/ Moderate effort Low-Moderate Moderate Siegel-Wolf Task level Moderate cost/ High effort Low Moderate SAINT Task level Moderate cost/ High effort Low-Moderate Moderate Micro SAINT Task level Low cost/ Moderate effort Low-Moderate Moderate SIMWAM Task level Moderate cost/ Moderate effort Low Moderate SWAS Taak element level High COst/ Moderate effort Low Moderate HOS Task element level Low cost/ High Effort Moderate-High Low Dlagnostlclty Subjectivity Task Analysis Simulation • 40 Cost refers to acquiSition costs in dollars.
Presumably, if a simulated operator were employed, differences in workload data should be entirely due to variations in system configuration. Naturally, no such human operator model presently exists, again due primarily to the lack of a workload definition and consequently its effect upon operator performance. Meister (1985) and Chubb, Laughery and Pritsker (1987) provide an expanded review of simulation models and their applications. Accurate and detailed descriptions of the operator, system, and operational environment are prerequisites to a good simulation model.
Good predictive techniques are hard to come by, and those that do exist have limitations. Nevertheless, the tremendous value of recognizing and diagnosing problems early on makes the use of these techniques imperative. Unfortunately, empirical evaluation of workload is frequently of value only to confirm a proper design, or to discover man-machine deficiencies. In either case, the cost-benefit tradeoff of empirical techniques is far less than that of a properly executed analytic technique applied in the concept formulation or exploratory development stage.
Applications of Human Performance Models to System Design by Grant R. McMillan (auth.), Grant R. McMillan, David Beevis, Eduardo Salas, Michael H. Strub, Robert Sutton, Leo Van Breda (eds.)